The enormous variety of eye constructions in the animal world shows that
animals use different amounts and different parts of the visible information
that surrounds us.

Human and non-human eyes consist of pure optics and electronics, but in a biological package, and have been adapted and optimized in various animals for millions of years. Researchers believe that the eyes have evolved at least seven different ways, which is why, the insect eyes are so different compared to other animals' eyes.

300° video projection on a 'pixalated' surface.


360° view, video

Flies generally lay their eggs on things that will make a good food source for their offspring, so when maggot larvae hatch they can start eating right away. Along with bacteria and other insects, maggots quickly break down dead things. They have no legs, but their front ends have mouths with hooks that help them grab at decaying food items. 

Research shows that maggots have the ability to smell particular aromas, as well as react to light. Fruit fly maggots can’t see distinct images, but they have eye-like photoreceptors known as Bolwig organs that help them detect brightness. More recently, researchers discovered they also have light-sensing cells along their body. Both help to protect them from too much light, which can be deadly for young fruit flies.

The Drosophila Bolwig organs are small photoreceptor bundles that facilitate the phototactic behavior of the larva. Comparative literature suggests that these highly reduced visual organs share evolutionary ancestry with the adult compound eye. - from 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



The structure of an animal's eye is determined by the environment in which it lives, and the behavioural tasks it must fulfill to survive. Arthropods differ widely in the habitats in which they live, as well as their visual requirements for finding food or conspecifics, and avoiding predators. Consequently, an enormous variety of eye types are found in arthropods: they possess a wide variety of novel solutions to overcome visual problems or limitations. -from Wikipedia

Nocturnal insects have evolved remarkable visual capacities, despite small eyes and tiny brains. They can see colour, control flight and land, react to faint movements in their environment, navigate using dim celestial cues and find their way home after a long and tortuous foraging trip using learned visual landmarks. - from The remarkable visual capacities of nocturnal insects, by Eric J Warrant

UV light, flourescence 


Friedrich Justin Bertuch, description of how a diorama works, 1790-1830



A short historic introduction:

Early forms, so-called proto-dioramas, can be found in reli­gious art.
These take the form of small and larger sculp­tural presen­ta­tions behind glass,
which were intended to bring the secret of faith to life. As objects of popular
devo­tion, they became wide­spread in the seven­teenth and eigh­teenth

But, Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and Charles-Marie Bouton are
consid­ered as the inven­tors of the diorama, as an optical-mechan­ical play­house.
Visitors could marvel at illuminated canvases with scenes of historical events, which were set in motion with light and stage techniques and accom­pa­nied by orches­tral music. 

Diorama with a viewer at American Museum of Natural HistoryNew York City 2015

After 1900, the signif­i­cance of the diorama concept changed, expanding
into other areas. As a glass show­case, it estab­lished itself as the preferred
form of presen­ta­tion for natural-histor­ical, anthro­po­log­ical and
histor­ical museum collec­tions. In the age of colo­nialism, dioramas
served as propa­ganda tools and for the polit­ical justi­fi­ca­tion of
hege­monic power strug­gles. 

The diorama not only combines objects but becomes one itself: It brings together various mate­rials, such as plaster, textiles, fur, paper, wood, and paint, which are processed and arranged creatively by artists, anthro­pol­o­gists, and museum taxi­der­mists to form an overall scene.

The word DIORAMA literally means "through that which is seen",
from the Greek di- "through" + orama "that which is seen, a sight".